In the last two decades, the study of emotions in the past has established itself as a field of research. Scholars study the expression of emotions in the Greek and Roman worlds, and in the Middle Ages.41 For instance, a research group in Oxford led by Chaniotis, which specializes in the social and cultural history of the Hellenistic Greek and the Roman East, has been working on the project “The Social and Cultural Construction of Emotions: The Greek Paradigm” since

2009.42 This research group has published its results in a series of books.43 Since 2014, the University of Illinois Press has been publishing a series on the history of emotions.44 In addition, similar studies have researched emotions from dif- ferent points of view:“Emotions in the ClassicalWorld”45 deals with the poetics of emotional expression, philosophical theories of emotions, the role of emo- tion in historiography, intertextuality and the emotions, and the role of art and material culture in the representation of ancient affectivity.