Middle Babylonian literature, spanning roughly from 1500 to 1000 BCE, offers a window into the cultural and religious beliefs of the ancient Mesopotamian society. Here are some key points to remember:

Famous examples:

  • The Epic of Gilgamesh: This epic poem, considered one of the oldest surviving works of literature, explores themes of friendship, mortality, and the quest for immortality.
  • Enuma Elish: This creation myth recounts the Babylonian story of how the gods fashioned the world from the primordial chaos.
  • Ludlul Bel Nemhe: This "hymn to the righteous sufferer" expresses the lament and eventual vindication of a righteous individual who suffers unjustly.


  • Written in cuneiform: This wedge-shaped writing system was pressed into clay tablets, which were then baked or sun-dried for preservation.
  • Religious themes: Many texts focus on the relationship between humans and the divine, including myths, hymns, and rituals.
  • Epic tales: Narrative poems recount the adventures of heroes and gods, often with moral lessons embedded within the stories.
  • Wisdom literature: Proverbs and instructional texts offer guidance on ethical conduct and practical living.

Further exploration:

  • If you're interested in specific examples, I can provide more details about the aforementioned works or others like "The Epic of Erra" or "The Instructions of Shuruppak."
  • To gain a deeper understanding, you can consult academic resources like Middle Babylonian Literary Texts from the Frau Professor Hilprecht Collection, Jena: [invalid URL removed] or scholarly articles online.