Charles 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558 was Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria from 1519 to 1556, King of Spain from 1516 to 1556, and Lord of the Netherlands as titular Duke of Burgundy from 1506 to 1555. He was heir to and then head of the rising House of Habsburg during the first half of the 16th century. During his lifetime he reigned as the Holy Roman emperor (1519–56), king of Spain (as Charles I; 1516–56), and archduke of Austria (as Charles I; 1519–21).  He had an empire extending across Europe from Spain and the Netherlands to Austria and the Kingdom of Naples and reaching overseas to Spanish America. Facing the rise of Protestantism and pressure from the Ottomans, and France, Charles V would struggle to keep the empire together. Eventually he yielded and abdicated in favour of his son Philip II, giving the title of emperor to his brother Ferdinand I. He retired to a monastery and died September 21, 1558, in San Jerónimo de Yuste, Spain.