Ai Khanum (also spelled Ai-Khanoum or Ay-Khanum, lit. "Lady Moon" in Uzbek) was a city founded in the 4th century BC, following the conquests of Alexander the Great and was one of the primary cities of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom.

The site is located in the northern part of modern Afghanistan, in a little plain between the Amou-Darya and the Kokcha. In 1961, the Afghan king Mohammad Zaher Chach discovered one of Central Asia's most beautiful Greek towns. Three years later, the excavations began, supervised by Paul Bernard from France, and lasted from 1964 to 1978. The Russo-Afghan war, and then the civil war and the Taliban occupation forced the excavations to stop, and even if since 2006, French archeologists can cautiously go back to Ai Khanum; the site was severely damaged by looters and fights between Taliban and Massoud's forces.
The town measures 2km in length and 1,5km in width, divided between upper and lower cities like most Greek towns. There is a main street, and most public buildings are of Greek style, but the plan is not strictly Hippodamian. The city shows a lot of Greek style but also some Iranian influences.